A critic “analyzes” my dream: I am Pol Pot!

Yesterday I recounted a dream in which I witnessed the torture of people by the Khmer Rouge, but I had no idea what it meant.  Well, two people took it upon themselves to analyze the dream for me in emails, except that they seemed to be using their analysis as a way to to go after me. Here was the dream I had:

Last night’s was especially vivid. I was taken to a torture center run by Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge (perhaps the infamous Security Prison 21, about which I recently read), and was placed by the door, forced to watch the prisoners dragged in, kicking and screaming. Then I was taken inside and made to watch the torture. That consisted of prisoners being tied to horizontal metal poles by their arms. Then guards would apply blowtorches to the poles, which became red hot. Seared by the metal, the prisoners would scream horribly. And then I woke up.

And here’s an email I got a short time ago from a butthurt reader—a coward who lacked the guts to even identify him/herself:

Everything and everyone in a dream is you.  This dream is highlighting your own authoritarian, brutally judgmental attitudes that cut you off from and torture the feeling/accepting side of your personality.  You indeed are Pol Pot.   And it’s something your dream is telling you you need to work on.  On a superficial level your own authoritarianism is manifested in your overly zealous/somewhat silly application of your “roolz” to shut down debate and eliminate any spirited opposition to your positions by banning commenters for slight or imagined infractions or assaults on your dignity.  Similarly, your pleasure in labeling people like Aaron Hanlon who disagree with you as “miscreants” and posting their picture as part of their humiliation.  Interestingly, it’s your own authoritarian attitudes, which you seem to be quite unconscious of, which you predictably project onto the SJWs you so gleefully attack and humiliate.  It’s because a large part of your own personality is authoritarian in nature that you are triggered by them.  That’s how psychological projection works. And sadly such a harshly judgmental attitude as that indicated by the dream makes long-lasting intimate relationships very difficult, especially when you are unconscious of that destructive aspect of your personality. Highly intelligent people like you can be just as unconscious of what’s really going at the deeper emotional levels of their brain functioning as those who are uneducated.  That seems to be the case with you.

Umm. . . this person knows nothing about me save what’s on the website, much less anything about my relationships. All I can say is that he’s wrong about that, and as for the rest, well, you can be the judge.

The other email “analyst” had a completely different interpretation! I suspect that what these people are doing is presenting their own projection, arguing that what they don’t like about me is what actually caused my dream. As for my own analysis, I have none: the dream was completely different from all my other dreams, in which I am usually late for a final exam or taking an exam in a class I know nothing about. I’ve always been dubious about dream analysis, except that sometimes the reasons why things appear in a dream are obvious. There’s clearly reasons why we have specific dreams, at least in part, but I do know this: Freud’s own method of analysis, which I’ve read in his books, was bogus.

What I haven’t figured out is this: why do so many academics have the “final exam–can’t hack it” dream? Were we really under that much anxiety and stress about college exams that that anxiety would embed itself in the crannies of our brain, coming out at night to haunt us for the rest of our lives? I suppose someone’s written about this, but I can’t be arsed to check.

One needs a thick skin to run a website under your own name, as the internet can be a rough place. But I’ve learned to laugh off passive-aggressive jerks like this; life is simply too short. But really, if you want to take me to task in an email, have the guts to use your own name, for I’ve promised not to reveal names unless someone actually threatens me.

52 Comments

  1. BobTerrace
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:09 am | Permalink

    I think the email from the butthurt coward is actually a marriage proposal in disguise. 🙂

  2. Tom
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:25 am | Permalink

    This seems to be a professional or semi – professional dream guru. Apparently nothing seems to get more lucre from a client than making them feel guilty and in need of forgiveness.
    Or am I confusing this with religion?

  3. Stephen Barnard
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:30 am | Permalink

    Agree. The anonymous correspondent is probably into all sorts of woo.

    The best thing I can say about the analysis is that the spelling is flawless.

    • Tom
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:05 am | Permalink

      Yes, apart from those sentences regarding PCC the rest of it reads like a script just adapted for this post.

  4. somer
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:33 am | Permalink

    This purported analyst could be “projecting” their own reactions to your views in personal terms – or maybe they are just “potty”

  5. Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:37 am | Permalink

    Oy!

    Yes, I’d see the email critic not only as rude but completely unaware of the strength of their own projections. It looks like the emailer/reader/analyst fixated on Jerry as an object of projection instead of seeing the dream as a chance to learn about his/her own projections–potentially about issues with authoritarianism. The email analyst missed an opportunity! Perhaps, they will take it now, but I doubt it.

    Nobody can tell someone else what a dream means. (Dreams don’t have set meanings–the word “meaning” is actually probably the wrong word for exploring a dream.) It’s presumptuous and tacky to do so. And it shuts down playful exploration.

    Dreams can be fun for associating—so long as they are held gently and we remember that “association is not causation.”

    • Linda Calhoun
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:34 pm | Permalink

      “Nobody can tell someone else what a dream means.”

      You are so right about that.

      When I was still shrinking heads, and someone wanted to work on a dream, I always started out with identifying day residue. After that stuff was subtracted out, I mainly asked the client questions about each piece of the dream, and let him/her figure out what the associations were. Dream analysis can be very useful if it’s done right, but there are no set interpretations.

      BTW, when I was training, a requirement was that I myself be in psychotherapy for six months. I did some dream analysis of my own during that time, and I found it quite useful, too. But again, there were no set symbols or prefabricated interpretations; it was very associative and personal.

      L

    • Ken Kukec
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:21 pm | Permalink

      “Oy!” — now, there’s some cultural appropriation, Ms. Adams. 🙂

      (Unless you’ve become a Cockney Rejects-style punk-rocker over there, in which case it’s “Oi, oi, oi!!”)

  6. serendipitydawg
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:57 am | Permalink

    What I haven’t figured out is this: why do so many academics have the “final exam–can’t hack it” dream?

    You are training your replacements… I had the same type of dream until I left academia for sordid industry 😉

    • Diane G.
      Posted May 28, 2017 at 4:09 am | Permalink

      I’ve been out of academia for decades but still have the dream.

  7. Posted May 27, 2017 at 10:58 am | Permalink

    As for the exam dream, yes, that is also a recurring dream of mine that I’d had since high school.

    I can’t tell you how many times I panic in a dream realising that I’ve signed up for Biochemistry and forgotten to attend lecture all term! I figure this out during final’s week, and then I must cram to learn everything and then perform. Oh, man! A similar dream happens with English Composition. I can’t be arsed in the dream to keep up a weekly journal/log of literature I’ve read. Thus during final’s, I find myself jotting done bogus entries. Lots of them.

    My solution to all this trouble as a teenager was to simply stop going to high school (not a dream). After my sophomore year, I started going up at University instead. But, that action also made me feel like I was always racing to catch up. I still feel this way in some areas, though now I think this is because vast amounts of information are generated in my field. We literally can’t keep up with it. Big data cramming. More analysts needed to make sense of what’s already out there, when more information is coming faster than people can take it in. I wonder if this is part of the reason some of us continue to have the exam dream…

    • Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:11 am | Permalink

      Or maaybe it’s not that we are inundated with information all the time, but rather that academics continue to test themselves or suffer from “Impostor Syndrome”, fearing that we’ll be exposed for being not good enough, not knowing our stuff, not deserving the expert status–failing the test.

  8. tubby
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:27 am | Permalink

    Oh no, now I am concerned about a dream I had where I was a video game character in a city of perpetual sunset. Deep down I may actually be a man of muscle and violence living on an eyeball Earth!

  9. eric
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:35 am | Permalink

    Everything and everyone in a dream is you.

    Ah yes. That’s the same folk wisdom as “never regret anything you do” and “alcohol reveals the real you.”

    Its mostly bullflop (IMO), with only a grain of truth. The urges and crazy thoughts might be yours but the inhibitory/decision-making bits of your brain are just as much a part of ‘you’ as the urges. The more jerky, emotional, or idiotic ‘you’ that comes out when you’re drunk, tired, stressed is analogous to you with part of your brain ‘turned off’ (or turned to a lower setting than is normal). And the you of dreams is you with a lot of your brain turned off. Saying that’s “the real” you is like saying if you tie Michael Jordan’s right arm behind his back, you’ll see ‘the real’ basketball player Jordan.

    If analyzing a nightmare helps you identify a stress in your life and deal with it, then thinking about it was good. But I wouldn’t over think it. Sometimes a dream is just a dream – bits of your brain working weirdly. Sometimes its a response to bodily stimuli (indigestion, or getting a falling feeling because your feet came out from under the covers, etc…)

  10. Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:41 am | Permalink

    Paraphrasing La Bruyere, those cowards are attacking a ghost from their own imagination. And Freud is bogus, indeed.

  11. Mary Drake
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:59 am | Permalink

    I meant to post this yesterday – I listened long ago to a Lawrence Olivier interview in which he talked about having dreams of being on stage and not even knowing what the play was about. I always get a kick out of that – just like my exam dreams, my Army Reserve dreams of being called up and not being able to find my helmet, and, now that I am retired from all that, my current dreams of not knowing where I parked my car. Life is so funny. I wonder what those amateur shrinks above dream about?

  12. Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:01 pm | Permalink

    Of course the analyzer only ever dreams about bunny rabbits and doesn’t have an authoritarian bone in his/her body.

    • Tom
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:21 pm | Permalink

      OMG! is it catching?

  13. Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:01 pm | Permalink

    I got over the final exam dream once I graduated. It got replaced with a dream about making a conference presentation and not knowing what I was talking about. Same anxiety, different context.

    • Denise
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 8:01 pm | Permalink

      I was very surprised to have the exam dream recently, 38 years after college.

      My most recurring anxiety dream is that I suddenly realize I haven’t fed my pet in days. I haven’t had a pet since 2001 and I don’t think I ever forgot to feed one. I did forget to water the plants.

      • Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:47 pm | Permalink

        I know the feeling. Sometimes I wake up in the middle of the night in a panic thinking “OMG I haven’t phoned my mother for a while!” She has been dead ten years.

  14. nicky
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:37 pm | Permalink

    He just forgot the /s.
    With it it would have been quite good. 🙂

  15. S L
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:44 pm | Permalink

    I am a longtime admirer of your outstanding explication of evolution and also a regular reader, and I do not wish to antagonize you, but do you genuinely not realize you “shut down debate and eliminate any spirited opposition to your positions by banning commenters for slight or imagined infractions or assaults on your dignity”? Over the years you have revealed much of your personality in your writings and actions here and those are surely part of it.

    I value your writings enough to pass over the hypersensitivity and authoritarian tendencies, but if you have self-awareness you should realize these are genuine aspects of your personality.

    I comment here under my own name but am posting this under a separate identity since it would probably get me banned.

    • Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:38 pm | Permalink

      I see you have the courage of your convictions–posting under a fake email address under a spoofed IP address! That is a violation of the rules, but of course since you’re not only rude but a coward, there’s nothing I can do about it.

      You are apparently one of those people who doesn’t understand that everybody doesn’t have the right to say exactly what they want on this site, or to be a jerk, or to call me or other people names. I’ve said repeatedly that this site is analogous to my living room, and it’s uncivil to treat people in a certain way in their living room.

      I’m not your mother, and I don’t have to put up with you or anyone else throwing your toys out of your cot in petulance.

      I would suggest that you just stop reading this site.

      • Tom
        Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:55 pm | Permalink

        Is this also “the critic” having another go?

        • Randy schenck
          Posted May 27, 2017 at 2:09 pm | Permalink

          The only thing I can think to call it is PCC having a high level of tolerance, well beyond any patience I have. My first and last thing to do with this person’s comment is to hit the delete key because that is what the comment is worth.

    • Stephen Barnard
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 2:26 pm | Permalink

      As someone who was once banned from this website, and learned a lesson from that, I disagree with your interpretation of Jerry’s dream and his personality. The Web is rife with rudeness. Jerry doesn’t want that here, and he enforces it with da roolz, which is his right and privilege. I feel free to disagree with Jerry and other posters, and do so frequently, but I must do so in a polite way.

      I appreciate the civil tone in the WEIT, which is becoming increasingly rare in Web comments.

      • Posted May 27, 2017 at 3:57 pm | Permalink

        Hear hear. I visit a great variety of sites that allow more free reign of the commentariat. Most of these have trolls, occassional heated arguments, and so on. I can see how someone who did not read the Roolz will get butthurt when the inevitable happens, but that is the way it goes. Plenty of other places.

      • Richard
        Posted May 28, 2017 at 6:12 am | Permalink

        Agreed. I stopped reading Ph*r*ng*l* several years ago when I grew tired of the general level of nastiness on that site, and PZ’s genuine intolerance of anyone who disagreed with him on anything.

  16. Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:54 pm | Permalink

    I won’t pretend to interpret dreams, and you know it’s coming…but, I suspect nearly all university graduates have the same or a similar dream. For many it is the first time they were truly on their own, and this causes not a little anxiety. Perhaps when you are experiencing a similar level of anxiety, the dream returns, putting your anxiety in a familiar context.

  17. Pliny the in Between
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 12:58 pm | Permalink

    Maybe anxiety provoked dreams are just the brains way of reducing tomorrow’s anxiety by showing that things can always be worse. So when you wake up and prepare to go off to that exam you can take solace in the fact that at least you are wearing pants.

  18. Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:27 pm | Permalink

    In my view, the interpretation of dreams belongs into a set of practices that could be called the “religious method”, which I see in contrast to the scientific method.

    The religious method works like this: there is always a symbologically rich substrate, from intestines to goats to bible verses, from tea leaves to the flight of the birds, and from tarot cards to dreams. Or perhaps most iconic: the Rorschach Test.

    Then, the practictioner unleashes their mind onto this substrate, taking it utmost seriously, looking for meaning to emerge. Because the symbols are neither totally fixed in their meaning, but not arbitrary either, the practioner is able to find a narrative that is meaningful to them, and which is an almagam of the substrate and “mysterious” associations that were stirred up — wrought into shape by creative thinking.

    That way, the religious method is very closely related to the unconcious part of the brain, from where thoughts bubble up. They seem to come from an utterly mysterious realm, part strange and alien, and part familiar. This makes it seem this mystery could be understood, and is in fact “meaningful”. Depending on where you look at, this method itself is explained in various terms, from the scientific (or perhaps pseudo-scientific) “unconciousness” working overtime dealing with important matters, to entire shamanic and clerical practice, where this is seen as “communication” with their chosen deity, or spirits of the ancestors.

    Analysing dreams does it several times. At first, the dream is something unconcious, but it is immediately cast into a narrative it likely didn’t have if one could be observing it in real time, when it is written down. Then, the dream “story” stirrs up associations a second time which then somehow interact through the religious method with the substrate, and this then generates something ostensibly meaningful.

    However, the method only works if everything is taken seriously enough, otherwise the practioner will not look hard enough for meaning or will take the result as more or less random, i.e. will not believe it really is meaningful, even if it seems so.

    I believe this method is cruical to the creative process (“frame blending”, Fauconnier et al), but that of course whatever it produces is not really “true” in any way. And only meaningful to some degree. It’s trivially true that associations, of course, say something about the person having the association. It should not be seen as anything more than that, though, because what is stirred up can be imagination, too.

  19. RossR
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:37 pm | Permalink

    Wouldn’t it be remarkable if the one single dream you describe just happened to precisely reflect the one single aspect of your personality your anonymous correspondents take exception to! I conclude that neither of them is genuinely trying to be helpful. Who could have guessed.

  20. Robert Story
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:49 pm | Permalink

    Granted, it’s perilous to try analyzing another’s dreams, but the following analysis of Jerry’s Pol Pot dream is at least as valid as the analysis by the “butthurt reader.”

    Jerry said in his dream he “was taken” to a center and “forced to watch” the torture.

    If Jerry were Pol Pot or someone else in the Khmer Rouge, he wouldn’t dream of being “forced” to do any of this. Instead, Jerry was dreaming of the anxiety he feels in waking life watching the oppressive effects of religious indoctrination. He dreamed of the suffering–even torture–of people under the yoke of religious belief.

    This analysis seems (to me) far more likely than the first reader’s.

  21. Ken Kukec
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 1:52 pm | Permalink

    What I haven’t figured out is this: why do so many academics have the “final exam–can’t hack it” dream?

    That dream isn’t limited to academics, as some of the responses to your original post demonstrate. Hell, I have the same dream about law school, and that was decades ago.

    For me, the interpretation is straightforward: it’s the subconscious letting you know there’re other important things you’ve payed insufficient attention to lately — that the “back forty” needs plowing, too, so to speak.

  22. Stephen Barnard
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 3:00 pm | Permalink

    I generally don’t remember my dreams. They’re vivid when I awake, but quickly fade. Why is that?

    Many years ago, after a serious illness, I was suffering from depression and saw a therapist. She encouraged me to pay attention to my dreams and to report them to her. It worked. I remembered them, and it was cathartic to discuss them with her, but I eventually decided she was really interested in increasing her revenue stream, so I stopped.

    • Ken Kukec
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 3:18 pm | Permalink

      “I generally don’t remember my dreams. They’re vivid when I awake, but quickly fade. Why is that?”

      I believe that’s the leading indicium of psychotic anti-social disorder. Be sure to leave us notes as to where the bodies are buried. 🙂

      Otherwise, nothing to worry about.

      • Stephen Barnard
        Posted May 27, 2017 at 3:23 pm | Permalink

        indicium – An indication, sign, or token—specifically, the stamp on mail indicating paid postage. 🙂

  23. Posted May 27, 2017 at 3:06 pm | Permalink

    I’m sorry for the misinterpretation of your dream by a person who should realize he’s talking about himself.

    Had I attempted to interpret the dream, I would say that you are deeply anguished about our current state of politics and religion that causes so much pain for so many people. You witness it but seem to feel incapable of fixing it. If this is anywhere near correct, a great many of us are having similar thoughts, dreams and reactions just now. The world we find ourselves in is a brutal one that we feel must be changed, but feel helpless to do so.

    I’m not a psychologist or psychiatrist with experience in interpreting dreams, or helping the individual interpret his own dream. I am a person who has dreamed almost every night of my life and remembered a great many of the dreams. Some major concerns in my waking life have been processed and answered in dreams, such as gender issues and religion.

    As to da roolz, please keep them. One reason I faithfully read your website is the high level of intelligence and education displayed by yourself and your readers and the lack of meanness one finds prevalent elsewhere.

  24. Michael Fisher
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 3:50 pm | Permalink

    Your cloaked emailer…

    Unnecessarily wide vocabulary, too many adjectives, repetitive, unevidenced & poorly structured. S/he’s involved in an ‘x studies’ field!

    All my anxiety dreams have two elements: 1] I’m falling short of a target/expectation 2] I’m naked in public & it distresses me

    I have no theories worth mentioning on the subject, but I do wonder what anxiety dreams look like for those people in cultures with more or less taboos

  25. BJ
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 4:25 pm | Permalink

    “This dream is highlighting your own authoritarian, brutally judgmental attitudes that cut you off from and torture the feeling/accepting side of your personality.”

    I know, this is, like, totally what I get from Jerry’s posts, especially the ones supporting free speech and civil rights for all. What an authoritarian! Ugh!

  26. Posted May 27, 2017 at 6:49 pm | Permalink

    Your hippocampus is in overload and exam anxiety is it’s way of coping.
    It can’t shove everything in there or prioritise current trains of thought so, wait for it…. Pol Pot visits in the night to show how he can eliminate 17 million of his own people and not give a rat’s arse about it.
    So I recommend have a cuppa tea contemplate the tips of your cowboy boots and how much force your gonna apply on his next visit.
    Give him one for me please.

  27. Posted May 27, 2017 at 7:05 pm | Permalink

    I wonder if a lot of these dreams are about the fact that in reality at the time of the dream we are incapacitated by the hormone that paralyses our body whilst we sleep. Subconsciously we are aware of this lack of being able to move, in addition our conscious mind is somewhat addled in clear thinking, meaning we don’t feel confident to pass exams.

    In addition it’s possible that as our bodily functions are also slowed. That bacteria waste from the gut isn’t expelled so smoothly. Bacteria in our gut supply essential components for brain activity, as well as manufacturing vitamins. Parasites such as intestinal worm, which have high background rates in general population expel waste that causes us to grind our teeth and get irritable. Tentus has been found in gut flora, causing teeth clenching. There must be many variety of bacteria, virus’ et al that live in our body and expel waste that has adverse impact. In the day our blood is pushing more oxygen around and working better to remove this waste, but at night it might get a chance to build up. Maybe our body releases a bit of adrenaline or other regulatory hormones to counter, and we end up feeling anxiety or fear, which leads to stressful dreams.

    I’m not a scientist. So this is just my thoughts based on bits and pieces of information I’ve read and personal experience, managing night terrors and other sleep issues over the years with myself and children.

  28. James Walker
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 7:39 pm | Permalink

    I know from a couple of rounds of therapy that there’s never one ‘correct’ interpretation of a dream, and that even if you know the person in depth, you can never be sure that your interpretation is valid. I take any kind of psychological analysis from someone who’s never met the subject with a grain of salt.

    I’m a tenured professor and I often have dreams at the beginning of term that I have to teach a class but I can’t find the room and I haven’t prepared properly. I also have dreams that my job is being terminated in a few months and I’ll have to move back in with my parents(!). The other dream I have is that there was a mistake with my undergraduate degree and I have to go back and take a class otherwise the rest of my career since then will be invalidated.

    On a more general note, I wonder whether dreaming confers any evolutionary advantage, or is it just a side-effect of the way the brain developed?

    • Stephen Barnard
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 7:47 pm | Permalink

      “The other dream I have is that there was a mistake with my undergraduate degree and I have to go back and take a class otherwise the rest of my career since then will be invalidated.”

      I’ve had the same dream, but it’s high school! I have to go back to high school to complete my requirements! And then it all goes to hell.

    • Ken Kukec
      Posted May 27, 2017 at 8:56 pm | Permalink

      “I also have dreams that my job is being terminated in a few months and I’ll have to move back in with my parents(!).”

      Hope it works out better for you than it did for Alex with Joe-the-Lodger in A Clockwork Orange.

      • James Walker
        Posted May 27, 2017 at 11:10 pm | Permalink

        “So you’re back, eh? You’re back to make life a misery for your lovely parents once more, is that it?”

  29. jeffery
    Posted May 27, 2017 at 9:03 pm | Permalink

    There was a guy who was once a good friend of mine, until it became apparent that he worshiped Sigmund Freud and thought that Freud had truly discovered everything there was to know about the human mind. He fancied himself a “dream-analyst” and, before we parted the ways over my rebuttals of Freud’s infallibility (to which he responded with increasingly crude and juvenile insults) he offered to “analyze” a dream I’d written about which I’d written to him. There was an “unknown person” in the dream, and he immediately decided that this had to be HIM, although I’d not thought of him or had any dealings with him in months….

  30. jrhs
    Posted May 28, 2017 at 6:52 am | Permalink

    My analysis –

    1) Time to visit Cambodia.
    2) You miss giving hard exams that terrorize ill-prepared students.

  31. Herb Hunter
    Posted May 28, 2017 at 7:32 am | Permalink

    Even if an analyst knew all of your thoughts and experiences in the week preceding the dream in question(including such seemingly trivial things as TV commercials, music heard in an elevator and glanced photographs), any of which could have been triggers, his analysis is bound to be rubbish.

  32. Scott
    Posted May 29, 2017 at 9:33 am | Permalink

    I played in a punk rock band in highschool. We only played house shows and we sucked so now I sit behind a desk all day. I still have dreams that I’m with a new band but I don’t know any of the songs and we are about to go on stage and I’m scared shitless. I never make it on stage though.

  33. Posted May 29, 2017 at 12:06 pm | Permalink

    I wonder how the critic claims to know all of these things. Last I checked there was no scientific consensus on dreaming – other than it seems to be required by mammals generally (with a few exceptions).


Post a Comment

Required fields are marked *
*
*

%d bloggers like this: