I can’t recommend Walter Kaufmann’s book Critique of Religion and Philosophy (1958) highly enough. It’s erudite, packed with original thought and analysis, and accessible to the general reader. I’m concentrating on the critique of religion rather than philosophy, but the former occupies most of the book.
Kaufmann begins his book with a section on “philosophical psychology,” and on p. 2 notes that “Ordinary language philosophy, like Idealism, is often guilty of rationalization—or, as another Idealist, [Francis H.] Bradley, put it very beautifully, ‘the finding of bad reasons for what we believe on instinct.’”
The quote for today, which appears on p. 152 of the book, hearkens back to the above:
To vary Bradley’s dictum about metaphysics: theology is the finding of dubious reasons for what the theologian has believed all along; and when the chips are down, he consults his conscience and, if necessary, forgets his theology. Sometimes this means a decided improvement.
There you have it: both the definition and methodology of theology in just a few hard-hitting words. Implicit, too, is faith’s incompatibility with science: the a priori commitment to support what you know to be true.